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How was Middle Horizon identity branded?
Without a written language, the Wari developed other means to record their knowledge, such as knotted khipus to account for quantities and artisan crafts to archive imagery and narratives. With regard to imagery, the Agent categories demonstrate how Wari artisans visualized and recorded an individual's or group identity. Another possible technique to brand an identity (or ownership) was the creation of rectangular motifs usually painted "pendent" to the rim of straight-sided bowls (Menzel 1964). The sides of the rectangle were framed by vertical bands to focus attention on design elements in the center. The design elements are often found on other artifacts such as textiles. Because the Inca used rectangular motifs known as 'tocapus' as symbols to identify ethnic groups, I suggest that these banded-rectangles are antecedent forms of 'tocapus' (see also Clados 2012). Understanding Wari tocapus may provide an insight into societal relationships and the tracking of agency during the Middle Horizon.

The prehistory of Wari tocapus begins with the introduction of geometric motifs derived from the Nasca 'humpback animal' or 'hump-backed animal' or monkey motif as found on late Nasca pottery (Knobloch 2005). As demonstrated by a similiary seriation of motifs, the stylization process from the Nasca 7 monkey motif through the Nasca 8 separation of the mouth and eye into a bi-colored, banded-rectangle design and a bi-colored, asymmetrical recurved-ray design, respectively, suggests that pottery assigned to Nasca 8 should be temporally divided. The earlier group retains the essential style attributes of Nasca and remains in the Nasca 8 style. The later group belongs to the Loro Style and represents significant decline in recognizable Nasca motifs and vessel shapes and the initial sharing of ceramic craftsmanship with those in the Huari heartland, perhaps by trade or Nascan diaspora. In any event, the beginning of Huari tocapus in MH Epoch 1A and continued popularity and diversity throughout Epoch 2 in Huari art would never have occurred if the stylization of the monkey motif had not occurred in the Nasca region.
The first four tocapus were excavated at Huari and associated with Epoch 1 deposits. Unless otherwise indicated, most other examples date to Epoch 2.
There is a 1 cm scale in most jpgs. (NOTE: )


TOCAPUS:
    T100     T105     T110    
    T101     T106     T111    
    T102     T107     T112    
    T103     T108     T113    
    T104     T109     T114    

TOCAPU T100
Represented by one example from Stratum 21 of Eb4-200, a 2 x 2 x 4 m excavation unit, this tocapu may be antecedent to those that display "feather-like" bands with dots in the squared tips. It occurred on the interior of a flaring, straight-sided open bowl.
Huari Site Map
REFERENCES:
T100-1     Knobloch 1977; Knobloch 1983:372, Pl.50a
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TOCAPU T101
This tocapu has double bands of red and orange with a vertical wavy line in the central white band. Variations may include single bands of grey. Beginning in late Epoch 1A, this tocapu was used as a pendent rectangle on flaring, straight-sided open bowls and as identity marks on cheeks as modeled on effigy jars. The ceramic evidence was found at Huari on open bowl sherds from Strata 3, 4, 14, 16, 17, 20 of Eb4-200, a 2 x 2 x 4 m excavation unit, and effigy jar sherds from Bennett's shallow excavations at Acuchimay. The ceramic material found at Acuchimay is in the Huarpa styles dating to the end of the Early Intermediate Period and Wari styles of Epoch 1.
Huari Site Map
Ayacucho Area Map
REFERENCES:
T101-1     Knobloch 1983;     Knobloch 1977:Tocapu 101 from Huari
T101-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 101 from Acuchimay
T101-3     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 101 from Acuchimay
T101-4     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 101 from Acuchimay
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TOCAPU T102
The most simple of tocapus has only bands - usually three with a central white band framed by red and/or grey bands. Though not yet found on the sides of bowls, a database of sherds makes it very difficult to determine. So far, this tocapu is found on the cheek areas of effigy jars beginning in Epoch 1. Refer to Agent 102 for further examples such as, Epoch 2 Pachacamac effigy jars.
Huari Site Map
REFERENCES:
T102-1     Knobloch 1983; Knobloch 1977:   Tocapu 102 from Huari
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TOCAPU T103
Colorful circled-dots (colored circles outlined in black with a black center dot) were derived from Nasca art and were used by both Wari and Nasca artisans as 'filler' elements. The hypothesis that highland Huarpa people made contacts with the late Nasca culture - during the late Early Intermediate Period - and initiated artistic change in Wari ceramic art is supported by the evidence of this tocapu and its temporal limitation to Epoch 1. Later, white circled-dots as filler elements were predominately used in the Middle Horizon Epoch 2 leading to those that are unoutlined in Middle Horizon Epochs 3-4.
Huari Site Map
REFERENCES:
T103-1     Knobloch 1983; Knobloch 1977:    Tocapu 103 from Huari
T103-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 103 from Huari
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TOCAPU T104
The chevron was a design derived from the Early Intermediate Period Huarpa ceramic art. As a chevron band it was used on the rim of effigy jars to represent a headband (see Agent 102 ). The early versions occur on the interior of flaring, straight-sided open bowls (T104-1, St.22, late Epoch 1A).
An interesting chronological and cultural change occurs with this tocapu. The surface of a vessel is the "field" area for design and decoration. On the exterior field of bowls (both convex-sided bowls (T104-1, St.21, early Epoch 1B) and lyre cups (T104-5, Pit 2E, left and right)) the design area is framed by a horizontal rim band and base band(s). Between these horizontal bands the field is then divided vertically into panels and panel dividers. In late Epoch 1A the chevron tocapu was first used as a panel divider. The panels are usually filled with mythic creatures (T104-2, Eb3-A, St. 4/3, Epoch 1B) and by Epoch 2 with deity heads (T104-4 Pit 2C left and right; T104-11).
At the end of Epoch 1 and into Epoch 2 the chevron tocapu occurred as an exterior pendent rectangle on vertical, straight-sided open bowls (T104-1, Eb4-200, St.5, middle Epoch 1B; T104-7, Pit 11C, lower right; T104-10, Pit !5 General, upper right; T104-13, Pit 15 F)) and flaring, straight-sided open bowls (T104-10, Pit 15 General, left; T104-12, Pit 15B, upper left). A less fancy version of the latter occurs on one example from Huari (T104-8) and one from Pikillacta (Glowacki 1996:681, Fig.43).
The most remarkable attribute of this tocapu is its restricted use in Epoch 2. Many other Epoch 2 tocapus (see below) are displayed on quotidian quality bowls and jars and rarely painted on finer ceramic vessels such as lyre cups. The chevron tocapu (T104) is almost exclusively used in exterior fields of fine ceramic vessels such as the lyre cups. Assuming that finer pottery was used by Wari elites, then this tocapu most likely branded their identity as they developed an aristocratic dominance in Epoch 2 at Huari and throughout the Wari empire. Moreover, with its symbolic origins in Huarpa culture, the increased prestige of this motif over time may indicate that Wari elites relied on lineage and seniority to acquire a higher social status.
Allison Paulsen (personal communication 1984) observed that the vertical chevron band motif points up on the exterior and down on the interior of bowls. I will add that this difference most likely is due to the position of the bowl when it was decorated. In order to paint the open interior surface, the potter had to hold the bowl on its side to allow for a manageable angle of the hand and wrist action. So the potter was painting with the rim closer and therefore the chevron was still pointing away or "up" from the potter's perspective. One should keep in mind that all of the tocapus and motifs on the interior of bowls were most likely created in this manner.
Huari Site Map
Ayacucho Area Map
REFERENCES:
T104-1     Knobloch 1983; Knobloch 1977:    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Eb4-200
T104-2     Knobloch 1983; Knobloch 1977:    Tocapu 104 from Conchopata, Eb3, Units A and C
T104-3     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Acuchimay
T104-4     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 2 Surface, A, B, C
T104-5     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 2 E, F, G
T104-6     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pits 8 and 10
T104-7     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 11 A, B, C
T104-8     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 11F
T104-9     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 13
T104-10     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 15 General
T104-11     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 15 General
T104-12     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 15 B,C
T104-13     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 104 from Huari, Pit 15 D,E,F
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TOCAPU T105
shares certain elements with other tocapus described below such as the C-shape and dot fillers and an X or + with and without dots drawn over a circle or round spot of contrasting color. The C-shape with dot fillers are undoubtedly symbolic of a feline pelt. The jaguar provides the sole example of black curve and dot elements found together on the pelt. Other South American felines may have spots and circular elements such as the ocelot, but not in close proximity. (See: wotcat.com website ) The jaguar is also known as a shaman's supernatural alter ego. As a pelt, this fabric could be used for hats as represented by Agent 150. A better match to this hat design occurs on one version of this tocapu with only the C-shape and dot fillers on the interior of a flaring, straight-sided bowl excavated at Conchopata (Milliken 2006:Fig.111). Another example of C-shape and dot filler designs that may represent feline pelt clothing is a shoulder tunic worn by a profile supernatural depicted on offering urns excavated at Ayapata (Ravines 1968:Lám.XVII, 12, 13; 1977:Lám.XXVI, 32)
Note: One Huari sherd (Pit 14C) partially displays the same supernatural and may indicate that a similar urn existed at Huari or that Huari was the origin of the Ayapata offerings and supports Menzel's (1968) dating of the offerings to Epoch 2.
On elite pottery, the total image of the jaguar is depicted with the head modeled and often found depicted as headgear on Agent 106 . As a jaguar tocapu, one might expect it to be a dominant motif as a powerful symbol. Huari pottery includes many examples of quotidian bowls with a modeled feline head and pelt-like designs that were obviously used for less prestigious functions (T105-1).
This tocapu is notable for consistently depicting a central element with black + and dots on a grey or red spot (T105-2). Of the approximate three to four dozen sherd examples (equating to fewer actual bowls) in the Bennett collection, only one was found with a black X instead of a + element (T105-3, left). This example might represent a simple error on the part of the painter. On the exterior of one sherd is fugitive stain of a Tocapu 105 motif from the exterior of another bowl indicating that the bowls were tightly stacked during the firing (T105-3, right). Such stacking may indicate household-level labor that produced quantities of vessels as expediently as possible with low regard for quality. Other evidence of household labor are the numerous examples of careless execution as though the painters were not producing vessels meant for high status activities. Remarkably, the design elements and their arrangement retain a consistent layout as though the painters may have cared little about the execution but knew the tocapu's meaning required a specific layout (T105-4).
Other examples include rim sherds from Jincamocco (Schreiber 1984 personal communication; Knobloch 1991)(T105-5), Chiqna Jota (Chicha/Soras Valley) (Meddens 1985:Fig. 90)(T105-6), Azangaro (Anders 1986:Figs.7.22d,e)(T105-7), Conchopata (Ochatoma 2007)(T105-8), and a complete bowl from Espíritu Pampa in Vilcabamba (Fonseca 2010 excavations). Whereas a distribution of fine, "elite level" pottery may indicate trade with the Wari heartland, the distribution of less fancy bowls with this tocapu (as well other quotidian vessels) indicates a diaspora of Wari's labor class who were most likely forced into areas under a policy of colonization.

Huari Site Map
Regional MAP
REFERENCES:
T105-1     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 105 from Huari, Pits 2 E; 15 D
T105-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 105 from Huari, Pits 2 B,; 11 A; 15 General
T105-3     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 105 from Huari, Pits 10 C; 15 General
T105-4     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 105 from Huari, Pits 8 D, E; 11 F; 15 D; 15 C, E
T105-5     Knobloch 1991
T105-6     Meddens 1985:Fig.90
T105-7     Anders 1986:Figs.7.22d,e
T105-8     Ochatoma 2007:123, Figs.h, j
T105-9     Fonseca 2010 excavations at Espíritu Pampa (see Fonseca, et al. 2011)   Tocapu 105 bowl from Espíritu Pampa
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TOCAPU T106
shares the curved elements with Tocapu 105 in that the image could also represent a feline pelt. Here, only the C-shape elements are depicted that may represent felines such as the Oncilla, Kodkod, and Geoffroy's Cat. (See: wotcat.com website ) All three are very small cats and somewhat tameable. The KodKod and Geoffroy's Cat range in northern Chile and Argentina whereas the Oncillas range north from that area into the Andes and Amazon. Thus, the Oncilla would be the most likely candidate to be depicted by this tocapu of C-shapes. Another possibility is that the C-shape elements represent avian plumage as represented on ceramic 'duck' vessels found at Pariti (Korpisaari, Sagárnaga Meneses, Väisänen 2011:Fig.23).
Though not as common in the sample as T105, this tocapu seems to be limited to the northeastern corner of the Huari site. The execution of the elements varies from thick black and red C's to thin red C's within a rectangle (T106-1). Similar examples occur on the interior of convex-sided bowls that were excavated at Azangaro (Anders 1986:484, Figs. 7.20 g, h)(T106-3). There are other sherds with careless execution that do not permit exact identification (not shown) and are more similar to the "hook" motif depicted on pottery also excavated at Azangaro (Anders 1985:483, Figs. 7.19)(T106-4). In general, Anders collection from Azangaro includes many variations in the use of the C-shaped elements.
A version of this tocapu occurs on the interior base of a blackware vessel and on the exterior of a convex-sided blackware bowl within a unique variation of the rectangular space (T106-2). Thus, these C-shape elements as fillers in a demarcated field still communicated a specific meaning across pottery styles.
Huari Site Map
Regional Map
Pariti, Bolivia
REFERENCES:
T106-1     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 106 from Huari, Pits 2 A; 15 General, F, G, I
T106-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 106 from Huari, Pits 14 F; 15 General
T106-3     Anders 1986:484, Figs. 7.20 g, h
T106-4     Anders 1985:483, Figs. 7.19
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TOCAPU T107
is a step fret motif that offers insights into Huari textile tunics and possible contacts with the altiplano Tiwanaku culture. Variations of the step fret occur throughout the Andes in several cultures since the Early Horizon. Often the stepped portion continues into a curved "tail" or rectangular loop. In the Middle Horizon Epoch 2 Huamanga style, the Tocapu 107 is set within a rectangular frame with interior steps and embedded triangles symmetrically positioned to either side of a diagonal band. With few exceptions, the diagonal is painted from the upper left corner to the lower right.
Unlike most tocapus T107 is always outlined in white. The step fret motifs and vertical framing bands vary in the pigments of black, red, yellow and gray. Examples occur on the interior of flaring, straight-sided open bowls (T107-1). T107 also occurs on the exterior of flaring, straight-sided bowls (T107-2, upper left) and short-necked globular jars (including miniatures) (T107-2). As with most tocapus painted on the quotidian quality vessels, the execution of the design can be careless (T107-3) and display odd innovations (T107-3, far right).
Tocapu 107 has the trait of duplication in alternating colors to form bands (T107-4). One sherd provides a clue as to why (see T107-4 far right). This sherd depicts the tips of a human hand thereby indicating an effigy jar whose agent wore a textile displaying a panel of these tocapus. The definitive evidence that this tocapu was used as a textile motif is shown on an effigy jar of Agent 110 found at Huari (T107-5). Again the tocapus are outlined in white. A similar image of a Huari agent wearing a tunic of vertical panels with this tocapu occurs on a fine tapestry tunic in the Textile Museum 1965.6.1. Ann Pollard Rowe (1979) provides a detailed description of the figures in this textile and others that combined to provide researchers with important insights into the musical abilities of Middle Horizon agents. The panpipe player (A. P. Rowe 1979:8, Fig.3) is depicted wearing a vertical panelled tunic of Tocapu 107 motifs, though without the diagonal band separating the steps. Of further interest here is that this figure also shares the attributes of a possible 'feathered' headdress and horizontal bands drawn across one side of the face as Agent 110. If the panpipe player is another rendition of Agent 110, then the curved, white object held in the vessel effigy's hand may indeed be a whistle or horn (rather than a bow). The vertical panelled tunics are typical clothing in the Middle Horizon (Bergh 2013), however, there are no known tunics to match this ceramic representation. The closest textile objects known to display this tocapu are four-cornered hats, such as depicted on Agent 101 images (see Agent 101-8; O'Neale and Kroeber 1930:pl.14 bottom though plate is upside-down of Hearst 4-9061 b, c; Knobloch 1988-2002:4-9601 ). However, again, there are no known four-cornered hats that have the tocapu motif that perfectly matches T107.
A more intriguing connection is with Tiwanaku pottery motifs. In 2000, I presented a paper at the PUCP's III Simposio Internacional de Arqueología (Knobloch 2000a; 2001) drawing attention to research on stylistic similarities between these two cultures. The relationship between Huari and Tiwanaku has always been distanced by the lack of shared artifact evidence especially with respect to the pottery, textiles and stone sculpture that displays elaborate iconography. I suggested that evidence of cross-cultural contacts may be more evident in the "less fancy" or quotidiana data suggested by Menzel's (1964, 1968) model of ceramic quality dictated by differing pottery functions. Remarkably, several Tiwanaku style vessels also display rectangular or tocapu-like motifs including one with step frets and embedded triangles symmetrically placed to either side of a diagonal band; and outlined in white and the diagonal band is painted from the upper left corner to the lower right (T107-4). Other Tiwanaku examples include a tazon Janusek 1994:Fig.10.25 C and with the diagonal band from top right to bottom left include a kero (see Janusek 1994:Fig.10.23 B (redrawn as Fig. D in this jpg)) and tazon ( Janusek 1994:Fig.10.25 B) from the AKE1 site east of the Akapana (see Tiwanaku Site Map). These examples provide evidence that the two cultures may not have exchanged the pottery, but the production of the stylistic imagery was shared and most likely by means of textiles (no longer extant) and/or contact communication.
One further observation is the curious possibility that this tocapu eventually influenced an Inca tocapu on tunics known as "key checkerboard" tunics (John Rowe 1979:248-251, Figs.4-6) with a diagonal band and small squares in the corners. Of the eight described in Rowe's article, six have the following proveniences: Ica Valley (3), Los Majuelos in Río Grande de Nasca, Armatambo in the Lima Valley, and Poroma in Nasca drainage. Reid (1986:Pl.38, Fig.56) mentions that the "tocapu square designs contain the symbol for the Quechua word kapak, which means noble, lord or august sovereign." Here is an indication that T107 had affiliations with populations who continued their identity into the Late Horizon.
The distribution of T107 sherds at Huari is also interesting with Bennett pits 2, 15, 10, and 11 producing 71 sherds found to depths of 1.5 - 2 m whereas pits 8, 9 and 13 produced only 5 - all within levels A,B,C or .75 cm of the surface. Thus, those who used vessels with this tocapu were concentrated in the northeast corner of the site and may represent an important organization of Huari's internal social structure, such as exclusive neighborhoods or barrios.

Huari Site Map
Tiwanaku Site Map
REFERENCES:
T107-1     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 107 from Huari, Pits 2 B, C, F; 10 B; 15 E
T107-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 107 from Huari, Pits 2 B, H, I; 15 General, E
T107-3     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 107 from Huari, Pits 2 I; 15 General, D
T107-4     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 107 from Huari, Pits 2 A; 10 F; 15 General, J
T107-5     Isbell, Schreiber and Knobloch, Huari Urban Prehistory Project, 1974 (photos courtesy of WH Isbell)    Agent 110 effigy jar from Huari
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TOCAPU T108
shares the attribute of white outlining of design elements with Tocapu 107. Most examples of this tocapu document a careless execution of the design elements. The occurence of Tocapu 108 is also similar to most that are painted on the interior of flaring, straight-sided open bowls (T108-1) and short-necked jars (T108-2). The jar examples include a miniature version (T108-2, ANT.212673). Evidence that this design may have been used on clothing is provided by a faceneck jar that appears to have the colored dots with black +'s and without the central element of Tocapu 105. Besides the examples shown below, one example was also found in Pit 5, level B (a pit that was not included in this study, see NOTE: ). This tocapu design is rather attractive and symmetrical and therefore suitable for a woven pattern. However, clothing examples remain rare. One possible use may have been in a belt pattern as depicted by a captive Agent 140.
Huari Site Map
REFERENCES:
T108-1     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 108 from Huari, Pits 2 E, Q; 8S; 9S; 10 C; 11E; 15 F
T108-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 108 from Huari, Pits 2 I; 15 General, F
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TOCAPU T109
was painted on the interior of flaring, straight-sided (or slightly convex) bowls after the interior surface of the bowl was covered with a thin, washy white pigment. The exterior surface is slipped in natural orange-colored clay. Identifying this tocapu on sherds is somewhat difficult since the wavy and straight line design can occur as filling the space around most of the interior of a bowl and not represent a tocapu form. A key attribute of this tocapu is a black lip line that is barely visible above the first red wavy line and continues to alternate (T109-1, T109-2; Anders 1986: Fig. 7.29 b). There are sherd examples that indicate short wavy lines were also used as design elements and therefore not representative of the tocapu (Anders 1985: Fig. 7.29 f). NOTE: due to the use of two cameras with slightly different lighting, the coloration of the sherd images show a pinkish hue or yellow-orange hue; the latter is closer to the actual coloration of the artifact.
Huari Site Map
REFERENCES:
T109-1     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 109 from Huari, Pits 2 B, K; 15 General, C, F, J
T109-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 109 from Huari, Pits 8 B,C, E, F, G; 9 S; 11 C, D, F
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TOCAPU T110
appears to be a feather-like motif due to the multiple bands tipped with black-dotted squares that may represent multiple feathers with the raptor markings of black on white. Examples of such raptors are eagles, hawks, owls, and kites whereas condors have feathers with long sections of black and white. I will refer to this motif as the "feather tuft" tocapu after Anders (1986:540-545) though it does not corraborate her distinction of a "feather tuft" from the "feather block" as interior motifs versus exterior motifs, respectively, since the Huari examples include the "feather block" on the interior. Unlike other tocapus, T110 may be framed by vertical bands but does not necessarily fill the space independently of other filler design elements. T110 was painted on the exterior of lyre cups (T110-1, ANT.212864), incurving bowls (T110-1, ANT.212674), tall cups or tumblers (T110-1, ANT.212668; T110-2, ANT.211610), and flaring, straight-sided bowls (T110-1, ANT.212192; T110-2, ANT.211949, ANT.212836). T110 was painted on the interior of flaring, straight-sided (or slightly convex) bowls (T110-1, ANT.211531, 212668; T110-2, ANT.211225, 212811). As a tuft, T110 often includes a base or ray section at the bottom of the gridded feather section. It represents a stylization of the central tuft in the of deity heads. In its earlier versions there would be profile avian or feline heads to either side.
Huari Site Map
REFERENCES:
T110-1     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 110 from Huari, 15 General, F; 7 A; 11 B
T110-2     Knobloch, Isbell, Fullen, Zegarra 2013;    Tocapu 110 from Huari, 2 I; 8 B, E; 9 S; 10 A; 15 E, F
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TOCAPU T###

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REFERENCES:
T###-1     Name (date)
T###-2     Name (date)
T###-3     Name (date)
T###-4     Name (date)
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TOCAPU T###

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T###-1     Name (date)
T###-2     Name (date)
T###-3     Name (date)
T###-4     Name (date)
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TOCAPU T###

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T###-1     Name (date)
T###-2     Name (date)
T###-3     Name (date)
T###-4     Name (date)
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TOCAPU T###

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T###-1     Name (date)
T###-2     Name (date)
T###-3     Name (date)
T###-4     Name (date)
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TOCAPU T###

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T###-1     Name (date)
T###-2     Name (date)
T###-3     Name (date)
T###-4     Name (date)
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TOCAPU T###

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T###-1     Name (date)
T###-2     Name (date)
T###-3     Name (date)
T###-4     Name (date)
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NOTE:
Many of the Wari tocapus in this archive are based on pottery from excavations at Huari, Acuchimay and Conchopata by Wendell C. Bennett in 1950 and during William H. Isbell's Huari Urban Prehistory Project in 1977-79 that included salvage excavations at Conchopata. The Bennett collection is housed at Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History (catalog numbers are ANT.xxxxxx) (see Bennett 1953 and Spielvogel 1955). I would like to thank Dr. Roger Colten and Maureen White for providing superb access to the collections and work space. I would like to thank Dr. William H. Isbell and his graduate students, Brittany Fullen and Edward Zegarra, for volunteering to photograph the collection with me in November, 2013. Of the 15 Huari pits, only three (1,5,6) were not examined in Nov. 2013. Pit 4 was photographed in 1979 by Knobloch. Pits 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 15 were part of the 2013 photographic study. Pits 3, 7, 12, 13, and 14 were only partially photographed for the most diagnostic sherds. The ceramic data from Acuchimay and Conchopata was completely photographed. Dr. Colten intends to place all photographs from the 2013 visit on the Yale server for open access.
The map of Huari was created in 1974 during a reconnaissance project directed by Isbell with Katharina J. Schreiber drawing on a plane table while siting at stadia rods held by Isbell and Patricia J. Knobloch.

The landscape of the Middle Horizon is divided by the following areas and codification:
  100     -     Central Highland     :     Lake Junin and Río Mantaro drainage (Ayacucho)
  200     -     South Coast     :     From Río Chincha south to Río Yauca (Pisco, Ica, Nazca, Acari, Yauca)
  300     -     Southwest Highlands     :     Ríos Pampas and Apurimac drainages (Jincamocco)
  400     -     Southeast Highland     :     Ríos Paucartambo and Vilcanota drainages (Cuzco, Pikillacta)
  500     -     Far South Coast     :     From Río Chala south (Moquegua)
  600     -     Altiplano     :     Lago Titicaca, altiplano (Pucara, Tiwanaku)
  700     -     Far South Highlands     :     San Pedro de Atacama area
  800     -     Central Coast     :     From Río Fortaleza to Río Cañete
  900     -     North Coast     :     From Río Lambayeque to Río Huarmey
1000     -     North Highland     :     Río Maranon thru Callejon de Huaylas drainages (Chavín)
Adapted from Lumbreras 1974:Figure 1 with modifications
Created by: Dr. Patricia J. Knobloch    
Last Updated:     November 13, 2015
Copyright © 2002 Patricia Jean Knobloch, 9229 Dillon Drive, La Mesa, CA 91941