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Design is the technical execution of artistic expression and is interpreted by researchers as attributes for analytical distinction. *1
In analyzing Middle Horizon iconographs, the basic distinctions of design elements appear within three discernable attribute categories: posture, accessory and band:
    1. Posture is the identification and positioning of body parts that are embellished with accessory and band elements.
    2. Accessories are applied elements that are usually in the round.
    3. Bands are linear design elements that often link to accessories and were probably the result of artistic expression within the linear medium of textile weaving.
ATTRIBUTES are categorized as: 1. Posture Elements, 2. Accessory Elements and 3. Band Elements.
INDEX
1. Posture Elements
    1.1. Face
    1.2. Forehead
    1.3. Eyes
    1.4. Cheeks
    1.5. Nose
    1.6. Mouth
    1.7. Chin
    1.8. Ears
    1.9. Hair
    1.10 Foot/Hand/Arm/Leg
    1.11 Torso
    1.12 Wing

2. Accessory Elements
    2.1 Headgear
    2.2 Clothing
    2.3 Footwear
    2.4 Jewelry
    2.5 Implements and Additional Items
    2.6 Tuft
    2.9 Avian Head
    2.10 Feline Head
    2.11 Fish Head
    2.12 Snake Head
    2.13 Camelid Head
    2.14 Deer Head
    2.15 Canine Head (dog, fox, coyoteÖ)
    2.16 Snail
    2.20 Circle
    2.21 Circled-dot
    2.22 Disk
    2.26 Human Face, Divided
    2.27 Human Head, round
    2.28 Human Head, square
    2.29 Maize Head

    2.30 Anadenanthera colubrina
    2.31 Plant, unknown
    2.32 Wings
    2.33 Trophy Head
    2.34 Axe
    2.35 Captive
    2.36 Snuff Tablets
    2.37 Moon Sign


   

3. Band Elements
    3.1 Interlocking Frets
    3.2 Segmented Dashes
    3.3 Segmented Boxes
    3.4 Zigzag Nested Triangles
    3.5 Zigzag Dashes
    3.6 Stripes
    3.7 Dots
    3.8 Circles
    3.9 Circled-dots
    3.10 Disks
    3.11 Nested +'s
    3.12 Nested Band
    3.13 Segmented Double Boxes with Dash
    3.14 S-Shapes
    3.15 Zigzag Nested Triangles with:
    3.16 Steps
    3.17 Line
    3.18 Capped
    3.19 Nested Elements (unknown)
    3.20 Blank
    3.21 Bracket
    3.1
1.1. Face
  1.1.01 Human: Divided into 2 design fields
       
100     103
           1.1.01.01 by horizontal dentate line
                  108
           1.1.01.01 by diagonal dentate line
                  123
  1.1.02 Human: Divided into quadrant design fields
        122
  1.1.03 Human: Design elements that fill a design field
   
           1.1.03.01 stepped frets
                  100
  1.1.04 Rectangular

P.1.2.200.1
P.1.2.201.1
P.5.8.201.2

X

X

  1.1.05 Round
  1.1.09 Avian
  1.1.10 Feline
  1.1.11 Fish
  1.1.12 Snake
  1.1.13 Camelid (alpaca, llama, guanaco, vicuÒa)
  1.1.14 Deer with antlers
  1.1.15 Canine (dog, fox, coyoteÖ)
  1.1.0
  1.1.20 animal, unknown
1.2. Forehead
  1.2.01
       
not assigned

BACK TO TOP


1.3. Eyes
  1.3.01 Pupils: divided, cross-eyed
       
105 (rare)     109 (rare)
  1.3.01 Pupils: round and centered
  1.3.03 Pupils: divided, walleyed
  1.3.04 Outlined
    1.3.04.01 band
         105
         107
    1.3.04.02 band and hook
         119
         129
    1.3.04.03 segmented band with hook
     on cheek
         104
    1.3.04.04 triangular points with hook
     on cheek
         110
    1.3.04.05 red ring

A P.1.2.100.1

X

X

X

X

    1.3.04.06 white ring
    1.3.04.09 Mythic Band

A P.5.8.201.2

B P.5.8.201.2

C P.1.2.201.1

X

X

    1.3.04.10 Mythic wing

A X

B X

C X

D P.1.2.200.1

E X


F X

G X

H X

U X

X

1.4 Cheeks
  1.4.00 Plain
       
not assigned     not assigned
  1.4.01 Tearlines (horizontal lines drawn
    from lower eyelid onto cheek)
        113     114
  1.4.02 Tearband
    1.4.02.01 X filler element
         101
    1.4.02.02 double band ending in tufts
         128
    1.4.02.03 double band ending
    in maize cob
         not assigned
    1.4.03 Pendent rectangle
         102
  1.4.04 Stepped fret with hook
  at corners of mouth
        105
  1.4.05 Tipped points at corners of mouth
        107
  1.4.06 Chevron filler elements
        112
  1.4.07 Pendent zigzag
        116
  1.4.08 Pendent tufts
        120
  1.4.10 Pendant Hooks

P.5.8.201.2


BACK TO TOP


1.5 Nose
  1.5.01 Band on ridge of nose (human)
       
102
  1.5.02 T-shape with eyebrows

A X

B P.1.2.100.1

X

X

X

  1.5.03 Conical (human like)
  1.5.04 Spiral

X

X

X

X

X

  1.5.05 Angular

A X

B P.1.2.200.1

X

X

X

  1.5.06 Quarter-round
  1.5.07 Hook
  1.5.08 Protruding rectangle snout

A P.5.8.201.2

X

X

X

X

  1.5.09 Avian Beak

A X

B X

X

X

X

  1.5.10 Feline, circled dot
1.6 Mouth
  1.6.01 Moustache
       
not assigned     not assigned
  1.6.02 Closed, ovate
   

A P.1.2.200.1

B P.1.2.201.1

  1.6.03 Open, toothed
        not assigned     not assigned
  1.6.04 Open, toothed with N-canines (Felines; Supernaturals)

P.5.8.201.2

X

X

X

X

  1.6.05 Open, toothed with peg canines
  1.6.09 Avian Beak
  1.6.11 Closed, upturned, quarter curve; Fish
  1.6.12 Closed, half curve; Snake
  1.6.13 Open, protruding buck teeth; Camelid

BACK TO TOP


1.7 Chin/Jaw
  1.7.01 Beard as round dot
       
not assigned     0
  1.7.02 Bands of interlocking fret design
        115     0
  1.7.03 Bands of hooks
        117     0
  1.7.04 Bands of zigzag and dots
        118     0
  1.7.05 Squared
  1.7.06 Nested-square
1.8 Ears
  1.8.01 Pierced (multiple times;
  not just for an earspool)
       
109
  1.8.02 Squared
  1.8.03 Scalloped

A P.1.2.200.1

X

X

X

X

1.9 Hair (black)
  1.9.01 Sideburns
       
102
P.1.2.201.1
  1.9.02 Side locks divided at shoulder from back hair
        138
  1.9.03 Bang and Sideburns
        not assigned

BACK TO TOP


1.10 Foot, Hand, Arm, Leg
  1.10.02 Square Toed, no heel
  1.10.03 Claw Toed, dotted-chevron heel
  1.10.04 Claw Toed, no heel
  1.10.05 Human foot

P.5.8.201.2

X

X

X

X

  1.10.20 Square fingers (flat) and thumb
  1.10.21 Square fingers (flat) and pointed thumb
  1.10.22 Square fingers (stepped)
  1.10.23 Hand grasp: Round fingers and thumb

A P.1.2.200.1

B P.1.2.201.1

X

X

X

  1.10.3_ Arms like bands unless otherwise noted
  1.10.30 Arms tied as captive
  1.10.4_ Legs like bands unless otherwise noted
  1.10.40

1.11 Torso
  1.11.1 Rectangular

P.1.2.200.1

P.1.2.201.1

X

X

X

  1.11.2 Anthropomorphic

P.5.8.201.2


  1.12.1 Wing Band
  1.12.2 Feathered "primaries"
  1.12.3 Banded "primaries"

BACK TO TOP

2.1 Headgear
  2.1.01 Plain cap
        
109     115     138
  2.1.02 Cap with headbands (probably represent
  strips of textile wrapped around head)
    2.1.02.01 plain band
         108
    2.1.02.02 multiple plain bands
         130
    2.1.02.03 chevron band
         102
    2.1.02.04 platelet band (flat rectangle with drilled
    holes for attachment; e.g., license plate)
         103
    2.1.02.06 zigzag and filler dot band
         111     117     118
    2.1.02.07 double points (possibly representing horns)
         112
    2.1.02.08 cross-hatching band
         114
    2.1.02.09 checkered band
         117     131
    2.1.02.10 feathered top pattern
         118     not assigned
    2.1.02.11 doubled ray design band
         121
    2.1.02.12 band of horizontal S's edged with black
    and white zigzag bands
         122
    2.1.02.13 band of dots
         123
    2.1.02.14 band with multiple rows of dots
         129
    2.1.02.15 band of circles
         126
    2.1.02.16 wavy horizontal line with dots
         128
    2.1.02.17 band of diamond pattern
         100     107
  2.1.03 Cap with rayed sunface (probably
  an embossed metal, stick pin)
        104
  2.1.04 Cap with blunt horns
        105
  2.1.05 Animal head and pelt (probably feline)
        106
  2.1.07 Cap with brim
        110     127
  2.1.08 knotted scarf in pelt pattern
  with headband of horizontal S's
        124
  2.1.09 tall round hat with rows of hooks and stepped frets
        125
  2.1.10 Four-cornered cap with alternating stepped pattern
           2.1.10.01 headband of diamond design elements
                  100
  2.1.11 4-cornered cap with split face
  and stepped fret with hook
        101
  2.1.20 Crown
    2.1.20.1 Rectangular, all sides
         not assigned     not assigned     not assigned
    2.1.20.2 Rectangular, top and sides only
         not assigned     not assigned     not assigned
    2.1.20.3 Round, encircles the head
         not assigned
2.2 Clothing
  2.2.01 Naked (as in the case of a prisoner)
       
106
  2.2.02 Tunic: tie-dyed into contrasting circles
        100     104     129
  2.2.03 Tunic: diagonal split pattern of face
  and stepped fret with hook
        100     101
  2.2.04 Tunic: horizontal split pattern of feline
  with contrasting symmetrical colors
        101
  2.2.05 Tunic: diagonal split pattern of faces
        105
  2.2.06 Tunic: feline head filler elements
        105
  2.2.07 Tunic: diagonal split pattern
  of stepped frets
        110
  2.2.08 Tunic: animal pelt pattern (e.g., feline pelt)
        112
  2.2.09 Tunic: vertical stripes
        130     131
  2.2.10 Tunic: cape tied in front
        138
  2.2.50 Loincloth
        138
  2.2.60 Pectoral; motif on chest below neck and necklace
    2.2.60.1 Geometric

A x

X

X

X

X

    2.2.60.2 Fancy
    2.2.60.3 Animal forms

A P.1.2.200.1

B P.1.2.201.1

X

X

X

2.3 Footwear
  2.3.01 Sandals
       
not assigned
2.4 Jewelry
  2.4.01 Earspool
       
101     102     103     107     108     112
        117     123     124     129     not assigned
  2.4.02 Noseplug
        105     106     109     129
  2.4.03 Nosering
        109
  2.4.04 Labret (in lower lip/chin area)
        109
  2.4.06 Necklace
    2.4.06.1Beaded
         105     109
    2.4.06.2 Half circles

A P.5.8.201.2

X

X

X

X

    2.4.06.3 Dentated Half circle
2.5 Implements and Additional Items
  2.5.01 Axe
       
101     105
  2.5.02 Bow and arrows
        100     105
  2.5.03 Shield
        101     104     110     112     not assigned
  2.5.04 Trophy Head
        105
  2.5.05 Rope around prisoner's wrists
        103     104     106
  2.5.06 Staff
        107
  2.5.07 Ceramic vessel
        100
  2.5.08 Mirror
        101
  2.5.09 Panpipe
        102
  2.5.10 Whistle
        104     107
  2.5.11 PÛporo
        109
2.6 Tuft
  2.6.1 Flat-based

A 0

B 0

C 0

D 0

E P.1.2.100.1

F 0

0

  2.6.2 Disk-based

A X

B P.5.8.201.2

X

X

X

  2.6.3 Bulb-based

A P.1.2.200.1

B X

C X

D P.1.2.100.1

E P.5.8.201.2

  2.6.4 Mouth-based

  2.6.10 Feline Head-based

A P.1.2.200.1

X

X

X

X

2.9 Avian Head

A X

B P.1.2.200.1

C P.1.2.200.1

X

X

2.10 Feline Head

A P.1.2.200.1

B X

C X

D X

P.5.8.201.2
P.1.2.201.1

P.5.8.201.2
P.1.2.201.1

X

2.11 Fish Head

A X

B X

C X

D X

E X

2.12 Snake Head

A P.1.2.200.1

B X

C P.1.2.200.1

X

X

2.13 Camelid Head (alpaca, llama, guanaco, vicuÒa)

2.14 Deer Head

2.14 Canine Head

2.16 Snail

A X

X

X

X

X

2.20 Circle        

A X

2.21 Circled-dot        

A X

2.22 Disk

A P.1.2.200.1

2.27 Human Head, round

2.26 Human Face, Triparted

A X

B X

C X

2.27 Human Head, round

2.28 Human Head, square

X

X

X

X

X

2.29 Maize Head


  2.30 Anadenanthera colubrina

A X

X

X

X

X

2.31 Plant, unknown

2.32 Wings

2.33 Trophy Head

A P.1.2.200.1

P.5.8.201.2

X

X

X

2.34 Axe

2.35 Captive

A P.1.2.100.1

X

X

X

X

2.36 Snuff Tablets

A X

B X

C P.1.2.200.1

X

X

2.37 Moon Sign

A P.1.2.200.1

X

X
3 BAND ELEMENTS

3.1 Interlocking Frets

P.1.2.200.1
P.1.2.201.1
X
X
X

3.2 Segmented Dashes

X X X X X

3.3 Segmented Boxes

P.1.2.200.1 X X X X

3.4 Zigzag Nested Triangles

P.1.2.200.1
P.1.2.201.1
P.5.8.201.2
X
X

3.5 Zigzag Dashes

X X X X X

3.6 Stripes

X X X X X

3.7 Dots

X X X X X

3.8 Circles

X X X X X

3.9 Circled-dots

X X X X X

3.10 Disks

X X X X X

3.11 Nested +'s

X X X X X

3.12 Nested Band

P.1.2.200.1 X X X X

3.13 Segmented Double Boxes with Dash

X X X X X

3.14 S-Shapes

X X X X X

3.15 Zigzag Nested Triangles with:

A Circles P.5.8.201.2

B Segmented Circles P.5.8.201.2

C Face P.5.8.201.2 X X

3.16 Steps

P.1.2.200.1 X X X X

3.17 Line X X X X

P.1.2.200.1

3.18 Capped X X X X

P.5.8.201.2

3.19 Nested Elements (unknown) X X X X

P.1.2.201.1

3.20 Blank

A All Blank P.1.2.201.1
P.5.8.201.2

B Rectangle P.5.8.201.2

C Ovate P.5.8.201.2

3.21 Bracket (usually outlines staff band)

P.1.2.201.1
Footnote 1

The following definitions are used:
    1) "attribute" - minimal unit of observable quality or quantity;
    2) "element" - minimal unit of design analysis
        (i.e., The divided eye design element is an attribute of supernatural beings.);
    3) "motif" - combinations of design elements not assigned a cultural meaning
        (i.e., Step fret design elements in a modular width fillet design element are often used to outline head motifs.);
    4) "being" - a motif with anthropomorphic attributes not yet assigned a cultural meaning
        (i.e., Huari religious art consists of several supernatural beings.);
    5) ìiconî - a motif assigned cultural meaning
        (i.e., The Staffed Deity often stands atop stepped-block motifs known as pyramid icons.);
    6) "style" - designs assigned cultural meaning with temporal and spatial coherency
        (i.e., Huari religious art includes Conchopata style ceramics in the highlands.)


    * Red Asterisk = thumbnail images redrawn from Posnansky 1945; 1957.
Created by: Dr. Patricia J. Knobloch    
Last Updated:     November 13, 2015
Copyright © 2002 Patricia Jean Knobloch, 9229 Dillon Drive, La Mesa, CA 91941